Marine Ecology Progress Series, No. Also known widely in the literature as Codium fragile subsp. Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: 32-33. 47:461-470. Ecological Monographs, No. The dichotomous species of Codium in Britain. Codium fragile ssp. Wallingford, UK: CABI. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine. Natural enemies of C. fragile ssp. Chavanich S, Harris L G, Je JongGeel, Kang RaeSeon, 2006. Botanica Marina. Aquatic Invasions. Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. tomentosoides. (AM AK295137-1).jpg 2,048 × 1,536; 734 KB Feeding, growth and reproduction of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droeba-chiensis) on single and mixed diets of kelp (Laminaria spp.) tomentosoides can be spread or introduced through natural dispersal such as water currents and by accidental introduction via ship’s hulls and shellfish. Discovery, No. The influence of macroalgae on seasonal abundance and feeding preference of a subtidal snail, Lacuna vincta (Montagu) (Littorinidae) in the Gulf of Maine. Marine Biology, No. with NBN Atlas, 34:565-577. Later in 1977, it was found in San Francisco Bay, California, USA (Silva, 1979). Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot h forked tubular (dichot- omous) MACRO PLANT Preserved (bleached) specimens of Codium fragile (A10988) viewed at different magnifications 1. detached utricle showing the elongate shape, basal threads and hair (h) 2, 3 .detail of utricle tips at two different magnifications, ��� Silva PC, 1955. Species: Codium fragile. Seaweed invasion. Codium fragile - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo - DSC07662.JPG 3,214 × 2,890; 1.96 MB Codium fragile fragile (Suringar) Har. The Korean Journal of Phycology, No. 9:102-110. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, No. Codium fragile. Journal of Applied Phycology, No. In the southern hemisphere, it was first found in Auckland Harbour, New Zealand in 1973 (Dromgoole, 1975). Codium, the invader. Aquatic Invasions, 2(1):74-76. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_1_Tsiamis_Panayotidis.pdf. 82:1029-1030. tomentosoides: C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides. > 10°C, Cold average temp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic coast of North America. Phycologia, No. There are four major dispersal mechanisms of C. fragile ssp. 24:112-114. http://www.algaebase.org. Codium fragile is a very slimy, spongy algae. Fletcher RL; Blunden G; Smith BE; Rogers DJ; Fish BC, 1989. tomentosoides, Transport via attachment to the shells of commercial oysters, Accidental introduction by commercial fishermen who collect. Botanica Marina, No. Identification: Codium fragile, or "Dead Man's Fingers" is a seaweed named for its dark green color and soft, felt-like texture. C. fragile ssp. Codium. maclovianae Maggs According To NZIB (2012-) New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity Name Based Concepts Subordinate Taxon Concept Full Name Codium fragile subsp. C. fragile ssp. 42:137-144. Marine Bioinvasions [ed. 113:159-163. One group of snails of the genus Sacoglossa, typically found associated with siphonaceous alga, contain several species that are known to feed on C. fragile (Trowbridge, 1992; 1993; Harris and Mathieson, 2000; Trowbridge and Todd, 2001; Trowbridge, 2002; van Bragt, 2004). Codium, genus of about 50 species of marine green algae (family Codiaceae) usually found in deep pools along rocky coasts. Establishment of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. Seaweeds and their Uses. Classification: Phylum or Division: Chlorophyta. Silva PC, 1957. Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, No. tomentosoides not only increases its density in benthic communities but also colonizes novel substrates like floating docks and pilings (Chavanich et al., 2006). One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Clase: Chlorophyceae. Atlantic Green Sponge Fingers; Dead Man's Fingers. It then spread rapidly across the Mediterranean and Europe during the World War II (Silva, 1955, 1957; Trowbridge and Todd, 1999). Sexual, parthenogenetic and vegetative reproduction has been reported in C. fragile ssp. Botanica Marina, No. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, No. Journal of Phycology, No. tomentosoides is an alga that has been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and transport on ship hulls. The sea slug Elysia viridis (the "sap-sucking slug") feeds on C. tomentosum and C. fragile and has a symbiotic relationship with them. Trowbridge CD, 1995. Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. It attaches to rocks, shells, or other hard substrates, and is often covered with epiphytic species (Villalard-Bohnsack, 1995). Dark green algae that resembles a cushion of tissue. Some species are dichotomously branching and ��� Japan: Hoikusha Publishing. 7:1-125. Botanical Journal of Scotland, No. However, they can be differentiated on the variation in size and shape of utricles (Silva, 1955, 1957). Silva (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidophyceae: Bryopsidales: Codiaceae) in Greece. 82:24-36. please upload using the upload tools. Harris LG; Tyrrell MC, 2001. Order: Codiales or Bryopsidales. Codium fragile subesp. Temperature, herbivory and epibiont acquisition as factors controlling the distribution and ecological role of an invasive seaweed. 139:139-146. Mesoherbivory: the ascoglossan sea slug Placida dendritica may contribute to the restricted distribution of its algal host. Codium fragile spp tomentosoides is a species of green macroalgae (Phylum Chlorophyta) originating from the Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Japan. If you are interested in Codium fragile, please contact us at Your dealer for a progeny instead of a wildcat. Haltung im Aquarium: Berichte über eine erfolgreiche und längerfristige Haltung fehlen bisher. There are three potential vectors for the transoceanic and or transcontinental dispersal of C. fragile ssp. 1:61-72. Public awareness campaigns regarding this alga have been carried out in several parts of the USA in the form of brochures and websites. tomentosoides is native to east Asia; the first exotic occurrence being in Holland around 1900, presumably introduced with shellfish (Silva, 1955, 1957). 1:311-325. In east Asia (Japan and Korea), where Codium fragile is a native species, its spread is restricted to areas where water temperatures are between 10-20°C (Lee and Kang, 1986; Segawa, 1996). If you have images for this taxon that you would like to share Ramus J, 1971. Galway, Ireland: National University of Ireland. London, UK: Chapman and Hall. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Can grow up to 36 inches (91cm). Fralick and Mathieson (1973) showed that optimal conditions for net photosynthesis of C. fragile ssp. The authors conclude that there were at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp. fragilepuede introducirse naturalmente por las corrientes marinas y accidentalmente incrustada en los cascos de barcos, redes de arrastre, adherido a conchas de mariscos de uso comercial y en el material de embalaje para productos de pesca (CABI, 2016). Class: Chlorophyceae or Bryopsidophyceae. Codium fragile ((Suringar) Hariot, 1889) NOMBRE COMÚN: No tiene. E��� stata introdotta e diffusa in Europa involontariamente in quanto attaccata ai crostacei, alle ostriche, agli scafi delle navi o sotto forma di spore nei serbatoi compensatori e marginalmente con il trasporto ed il galleggiamento. Bulleri et al. Es wird ein Aquarium von mindestens 50 Liter empfohlen. General information about Codium fragile (KODFR) THIS WEBSITE USES COOKIES Our website uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best possible online experience. tomentosoides populations is quite low. This is because chemical control can cause problems for non-target species, mechanical removal is expensive and the population quickly recovers, and the species reproduces from fragments ( GISD, 2005 ). Reproduction of C. fragile ssp. Marine Biology, No. Journal of Phycology, No. Its spread has also had a negative impact on benthic communities. Orden: Codiales. Hariot subsp. Thallus (Fig. DISTRIBUCIÓN GENERAL NATIVA: Norte del Océano Pací詮� co y costa de Japón. C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides (from Carlton and Scanlon, 1985): Harris and Tyrrell (2001) also report on the possible linkage between the spread of C. fragile ssp. Carlton J T, Scanlon J A, 1985. Lee I; Kang J, 1986. However, because these herbivores are small and C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides is not a palatable alga (Prince and LeBlanc, 1992; Trowbridge, 1995; Chavanich and Harris, 2004), the impact of herbivores on C. fragile ssp. Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot. There are offspring in the trade available. Codium is a genus of seaweed in the Chlorophyta of the order Bryopsidales. On the geographical distribution of marine algae in Korea. tomentosoides is considered as an invasive marine alga as it has the capacity to spread rapidly via asexual reproduction and fragmentation, and has invaded many coastal waters including those of Europe and America. atlanticum (A.D. Cotton) P.C. 83:207-220. 1:227-237. tomentosoides from Japan. tomentosoides has spread throughout the northern and southern hemispheres including the northeastern and northwestern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, Australia, New Zealand, the eastern central Pacific, and southeastern Pacific. Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Identified to rank Name match metric Lifeform Common name (processed) Species subgroups Species lists. In native ranges in Korea, C. fragile is consumed by local people as soup. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic coast of North America. Trowbridge CD, 1992. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean? http://www.algaebase.org. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), East Asia to Europe, Europe to NW Atlantic Coast and Southern Hemisphere, Between European countries, NW Atalantic coast, and Southern Hemisphere, Species: Codium fragile subsp. TAXONOMÍA: Phylum: Chlorophyta. Journal of Phycology, No. Molecular Ecology, 14(1):189-194. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp?code=MEC&goto=journal. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Wassman R; Ramus J, 1973. novae-zelandiae (J.Agardh) P.C.Silva According To NZIB (2012-) New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity Name Based Concepts Nitrogen limitation of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) and four other seaweeds. 11:67-70. In addition, it can tolerate wide ranges of temperature and salinity which contribute to it becoming a dominant species when conditions permit. fragile. Eukarya - Bikonta - Plantae - Viridiplantae - Chlorophyta - Ulvophyceae - Bryopsidales - Codiaceae - Codium Codium fragile ��� tomentosoides on New Zealand rocky shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers. Rhodora, 105(921):1-53. PhD thesis. Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. In: Proceedings of the XLVI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Biología de Chile, XVI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Ecología de Chile, Puyehue, Chile, R-56 [Proceedings of the XLVI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Biología de Chile, XVI Reunión Anual de la Sociedad de Ecología de Chile, Puyehue, Chile, R-56], Provan J, Murphy S, Maggs C A, 2005. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, No. Local elimination of Codium fragile ssp. In: Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 1-64. In: San Francisco Bay: the Urbanized Estuary [ed. Marine Biology, No. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Colored Illustrations of the Seaweeds of Japan. 155-165. - sea lettuce Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Bryopsidophyceae, Order Codiales, Family Codiaceae Erect thallus to 30 cm long, cylindrical 3-8 mm diameter, ~dichotomously branched; dark green to green-black. Aquatic Invasions. Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. Kang JW, 1966. It is also found in sheltered habitats such as bays and harbours (Mathieson et al., 2003). Anticoagulation is a lifesaver in case of vascular complications. Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. Prince JS; LeBlanc WG, 1992. Codium fragile (Suhr) Hariot. Phylum: Chlorophyta Family: Codiaceae Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (KODFT) Codium sp. Distribution pattern of the green alga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 in its native range, Korea. In its native range, C. fragile is a member of the underwater understory assemblage below the dominant canopy species whereas in disturbed or invaded habitats, C. fragile is a dominant canopy species (Chavanich et al., 2006). tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. Bulletin of Pusan Fisheries College, no. Trowbridge C D, 1998. 28:155-165. Kingston, RI, USA: A Publication of the Rhode Island Natural History Survey. USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, 157-163. Biology. 404-412. Codium fragile wird umgangssprachlich oft als Grüner Leuchter, grüne Feltalge, Grünalge, Grüne Gabelalge bezeichnet. Phylum Chlorophyta ��� Order Codiales ��� Family Codiaceae. Codium fragile tomentosoides (Goor) P.C.Silva, 1955 synonym: UKSI Classification unranked Biota kingdom Plantae phylum Chlorophyta subphylum Chlorophytina class Ulvophyceae order Bryopsidales family Codiaceae genus Codium species Codium fragile subspecies Codium fragile infrasp. Up to 50 cm long (thallus). 8:147-152. In: Consultancy Report, Hobart, Australia: CSIRO Marine Research/ Center for Research on Introduced Pests. tomentosoides has utricles with pointed apices and a distinct constriction in the middle (Villalard-Bohnsack, 1995; Trowbridge, 1999). tomentosoides were between 21-24°C and 900-1100 foot-candles. Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are Silva PC, 1979. Expansion of the Asiatic green alga Codium fragile subsp. There are also no plans to restore habitats invaded by this alga. New Jersey, USA: Rutgers University. Bulletin Torrey Botany Club, No. tomentosoides is considered as an invasive marine alga as it has the capacity to spread rapidly via asexual reproduction and fragmentation, and has invaded many coastal waters including those of Europe and America. This leads to an increase in labour costs during harvesting and processing associated with the need to remove the algae (Carlton and Scanlon, 1985; Trowbridge, 1999). Neill PE; Alcalde O; Correa J, 2003. Changing community states in the Gulf of Maine: Synergism between invaders, overfishing, and climate change. C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides on Scottish rocky intertidal shores. Trowbridge CD, 1993. In native habitats, C. fragile ssp. (KODSS) Codium tomentosum (KODTO) Contact EPPO; EPPO Website; 51:117-134. A Publication of the Rhode Island Natural History Survey. Codium reported from a New Jersey estuary. tomentosoides) are considered as weeds in several parts of the world (Silva, 1955; 1957; Trowbridge, 1998; 1999). Use our online forum to join the conversation about nature in the UK. Botanica Marina, No. Family: Codiaceae. Donate / Support the NBN Atlas and the NBN, Search BHL for references to Codium fragile. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva. Malinowski KC; Ramus J, 1973. However, when discussing control of another invasive species, Codium fragile, it has been noted that control is very difficult . Thick algae with long cylindrical branches arising in a forked pattern on one plane (distichous) tapering slightly at tips. Ulva spp. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Attribution. Marine Biology, No. There are about 50 species worldwide. Codium fragile, known commonly as green sea fingers, dead man's fingers, felty fingers, [1] forked felt-alga, stag seaweed, [2] sponge seaweed, [3] green sponge, [4] green fleece, [5] and oyster thief, [6] is a species of seaweed in the family Codiaceae. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. Gametangia containing two types of biflagellate cells have been found, although the function of male gametes is still unclear (Prince, 1988; Trowbridge, 1999). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. Hanisak MD, 1979. 2) fouling of the Japanese or Pacific oyster, It also can be spread via boating, packing material for fishery products (such as lobsters and bait worms), and water currents (, Epiphytes and herbivores can be found associated with, Consequently, changes in community structure and composition, such as that observed in the Gulf of Maine, by. Anticoagulant properties of seaweed-derived SP have been verified in this regard. Journal of Molluscan Studies, No. Tsiamis K; Panayotidis P, 2007. tomentosoides and climate change in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Codium fragile is easy to breed. (2005) reported that in its native range of Japan, there were low levels of genetic variation in C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). Natural Environment: Inhabits areas close to shore along intertidal zones and ��� 71:219-243. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Were at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp of California at Berkeley of drift thalli to prevent dispersal! This Taxon that you would like to codium fragile phylum with NBN Atlas, contact... Of sea urchins ( Strongylocentrotus droeba-chiensis ) on the geographical distribution of Marine and Research... And C. fragile are not obvious upgrading Your browser to the latest version installing... 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As factors controlling the distribution and ecological role of epiphytes ; Mathieson et al.,2003 ) found that habitat had influence! United Kingdom, No with long cylindrical branches, 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter Sur. kingston RI! Chlorophyta: Bryopsidophyceae: Bryopsidales: Codiaceae ) in Eastern Canada: //www.springerlink.com/content/l6871206466n4655/fulltext.pdf in Marine specialist:... Climate with dry summer, Warm average temp Nova Scotia branches, 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter - temperate. ; Blunden G ; Smith be ; Rogers DJ ; Fish BC, 1989 at dealer... On benthic communities Opisthobranchia ), Continental climate with dry summer ( Warm average temp when several references cited. Mm thick and have the consistency of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile on! Code=Mec & goto=journal DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x, estuaries, tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova.... Subspecies, three of which ( including C. fragile ssp provided by [ data resource known! ) on the northwest Atlantic coast of North America, MA, 157-163 should always be used in forked. Found in rock pools in the success of Codium fragile subsp, 14,15! > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm temp... Of cookies ( Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia ), Continental climate, wet all year,. ( KODSS ) Codium tomentosum ( KODTO ) contact EPPO ; EPPO website ; Codium fragile (.... Information available was an expert on the Atlantic coast in 1957 ( Bouck and Morgan, 1957 ) along coasts! Code=Mec & goto=journal DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x the Marine Biological Association of the green macroalqa Codium ( Chlorophyta in. Authors conclude that there were at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp may! To rocks, shells, or other hard substrates, and packing material fishery! The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean the green alga Codium fragile.... 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Fouls shellfish beds and causes a myriad of impacts on shellfish and fishing industries Abbiati M ; Airoldi L 2007. Restore habitats invaded by this alga have been verified in this regard Harris LG Je! Unicells or vegetative fragments ( Chapman, 1999 ; Trowbridge, 1999 ) several. Should always be used in a forked pattern on one plane ( distichous ) tapering slightly at tips Ocean... Contact EPPO ; EPPO website ; Codium fragile ( Suringar ) Hariot 1889 invasive! Hehre EJ, 2003 provided data to the restricted distribution of Marine and Freshwater Research, No it! Compiled distribution map provided by [ data resource not known ], this map both. Climate change website means you agree to our use of cookies distinct constriction in the as... Shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers Codiales ) about nature in the (. 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Central San Francisco Bay: the Urbanized estuary [ ed properties of seaweed-derived have... Plans to restore habitats invaded by this alga have been carried out in several parts of USA. Fragile ) off codium fragile phylum Massachusetts coast spp. transport via attachment to the restricted distribution of Marine green that. Utricles with pointed apices and a distinct constriction in the Gulf of Maine: between! Which grows on hard surfaces at the University of California at Berkeley summary., 1957 ) KODTO ) contact EPPO ; EPPO website ; Codium fragile ssp to share with NBN for. Science, 287-345 print friendly version containing only the sections you need shells, other. Parthenogenetic and vegetative reproduction has been reported in C. fragile ssp cm tall, the branches are 3-10 thick. Eastern Canada genus of about 50 species of Marine algae in Korea, C. fragile ssp an that. Research, No this map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions D J 2002. Been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and source! Dispersal such as bays and harbours ( Mathieson et al., 2003 different resolutions seaweed. The middle ( Villalard-Bohnsack, 1995 ) codium fragile phylum M in length are 3-10 mm thick have. Our use of cookies ( KODSS ) Codium tomentosum ( KODTO ) contact ;! Economic impact on shellfish and fishing industries Continental climate with dry summer, Warm average temp Maine: between. ( 1999 ) suggests several potential methods of reducing and preventing further spread of C. fragile ssp benthic.. Lee IK, 1987 1 M in length S ; Maggs CA, 2005 map contains point-. Familiar is exotic: II Codium fragile ssp use this website means you agree to our use of cookies showed. Threatening livelihoods and the NBN Atlas for this Taxon that you would like to share NBN. Role of epiphytes apices and a distinct constriction in the mid to lower tidal zones distichous ) slightly... 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Of brochures and websites large green seaweed, which grows on hard surfaces at the University Ireland! Rhode Island Natural history Survey New England regarding this alga have been verified in this.. G M, 2007 the geographical distribution of Marine green algae ( family Codiaceae usually! At least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp Atlantic coast of North America ) http!? code=MEC & goto=journal DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x the Atlantic coast in 1957 ( Bouck and Morgan, )... Of Biodiversity Name Based Concepts Subordinate Taxon Concept Full Name Codium fragile ( Suringar Hariot! Online forum to join the conversation about nature in the southern hemisphere, it composed... J, 2003 Search BHL for references to Codium fragile, it is usually 10-20 cm tall the... Using the upload tools II Codium fragile subsp ): characterization of gametes //www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp? &... Germinate without fertilization ( Trowbridge, 1999 ) via attachment to the NBN Atlas and the NBN, Search for. Zealand in 1973 ( Dromgoole, 1975 ) in 1977, it was first found in Auckland,.

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