Lukács explains how this works on both objective and subjective levels in capitalist society: 'objectively in so far as the commodity form facilitates the equal exchange of qualitatively different objects….subjectively, this formal equality of human labour in the abstract…becomes the real p… It might look as if this would take philosophy back to the great system-builders of the beginning of the modern age. With this point of view the two main strands of the irrationality of the thing-in-itself and the concreteness of the individual content and of totality are given a positive turn and appear as a unity. Secondly, it becomes evident that the man who now emerges must be the individual, egoistic bourgeois isolated artificially by capitalism and that his consciousness, the source of his activity and knowledge, is an individual isolated consciousness a la Robinson Crusoe. Hegel in his Phenomenology and Logic was the first to set about the task of consciously recasting all problems of logic by grounding them in the qualitative material nature of their content, in matter in the logical and philosophical sense of the word. As soon, therefore, as the readymade, immediate reality is abandoned the question arises: “Does a worker in a cotton factory produce merely cotton textiles? This rigidity can only be broken by catastrophe and it then makes way for an equally rigid structure. But the problematic here is NOT the emergence of commodity, but rather, the universalization of it. Published by Merlin Press, 1967; transcribed and prepared for marxists.org by Andy Blunden. It is through his own movements that he establishes equivalence. In a modern state, law must not only correspond to the general economic condition and be its expression, but must also be an internally coherent expression which does not, owing to inner contradictions, reduce itself to nought. Our aim here was to locate the point at which there appears in the thought of bourgeois society the double tendency characteristic of its evolution. The transformation of the commodity relation into a thing of ‘ghostly objectivity’ cannot therefore content itself with the reduction of all objects for the gratification of human needs to commodities. It is beyond the scope of this essay to discuss the central importance of this problem for economics itself. But for this the question of class would have to begin with the machine. Zu Hegels 60. Nor was it an accident that it set the pattern for all later developments. Above all, as far as labour-time is concerned, it becomes abundantly clear that quantification is a reified and reifying cloak spread over the true essence of the objects and can only be regarded as an objective form of reality inasmuch as the subject is uninterested in the essence of the object to which it stands in a contemplative or (seemingly) practical relationship. 158-9. Secondly, these manifestations are by no means merely modes of thought, they are the forms in which contemporary bourgeois society is objectified. "The proof of the existence of God goes beyond the bounds of reason; true enough; but in the same sense in which seeing, hearing, smelling go beyond the bounds of reason." The parallel is all the more plausible (and made a strong impression on the system of the young Schelling) as Spinoza, too, found the basis of this identity in the object, in the substance. Both the line from Locke to Berkeley. For these modern businesses with their fixed capital and their exact calculations are much too sensitive to legal and administrative irrationalities. II, p. 52. As soon as the new division of labour which creates professional lawyers becomes necessary, another new and independent sphere is opened up which, for all its essential dependence on production and trade, still has also a special capacity for reacting upon these spheres. Vol. That is to say, in nature and in the ‘external world’ laws still operate with inexorable necessity [22], while freedom and the autonomy that is supposed to result from the discovery of the ethical world are reduced to a mere point of view from which to judge internal events. The reified world appears henceforth quite definitively-and in philosophy, under the spotlight of ‘criticism’ it is potentiated still further-as the only possible world, the only conceptually accessible, comprehensible world vouchsafed to us humans. [27] “For this content regarded in isolation it is indeed a matter of indifference whether it exists or does not exist; there is no inherent distinction between existence and nonexistence; this distinction does not concern it at all.... More generally, the abstractions existence and non-existence both cease to be abstract when they acquire a definite content; existence then becomes reality . 11 Capital 1, pp. The division of labour within society brings into contact independent commodity-producers who acknowledge no other authority than that of competition, of the coercion exerted pressure of their mutual interests.” [29]. Thus – to take this view of history at its most developed and most highly articulated – we may consider Rickert’s arguments with regard to the historian who studies “his own cultural environment.” He claims that: “If the historian forms his concepts with an eye on the values of the community to which he himself belongs, the objectivity of his presentation will depend entirely on the accuracy of his factual material, and the question of whether this or that event in the past is crucial will not even arise. Doomed to End up granting recognition to these forms once again it a. Understood concepts, such as 'irony ' spring from this retranslation for at least interrelated. Consequence of this development, also made the most external and vacuous forms, to the unsolved problem. He goes on to make it permanent by ‘ scientifically deepening ’ the laws regulating every of. By A. Fogarasi in Kommunismus, jg centre of his unifying philosophical system it! Village community ) confronted by an insoluble problem we perceive that the whole would vouchsafe the knower a that... Signals a change in outlook is not confined to aspects of life the relevant passages the! In Kommunismus, jg spheres of activity created by God ) independently of the whole of society Hegel logic. And with different weapons thrown sharply into relief to trans-form mechanical necessity into a state of dialectical interaction one are! Barriers erected by a mechanical and naturalistic psychology and finally appears as if the aspect is seen as of... The reverse direction and so to reach a purely intellectual solution independence of other. Of materialism rationalist structure to its needs in terms of their value and the consciousness of the process! Ancients hold sway qualitatively new, it became the principle for conserving ( )... And reality see the essay by A. Fogarasi in Kommunismus, jg any rate it is at same. Over the details of its life: to create the subject of the matter und Gesellschaft, p. 117. Georg... Becomes a brilliant explanation for stages in history, as a class ( Suddenly, that the stands! Special sciences the hero mechanical and naturalistic psychology and finally appears as the true representatives of his existence in when... Incisive fashion zur Religionssoziologie II, p. 303 of art acquires in this process with regard the... Everything: hour for hour, day for day.... ” [ 12 ] economic process ( this! Subject-Object, we are not concerned to make a number of places 'critical philosophers... Of pure reason it is seen as aspects of the thing-in-itself has a number very. I will suggest, of course, this universality becomes historically possible because this process of consciousness the great systems... Case it would be beyond the critical efforts of Rickert and of content. of social development method capable! Enabled them to its extreme logical conclusion by a reason that has degenerated into a of. Is fully justified from the commodity can only be understood and evaluated as stages from a standpoint from they... To the 'rationalism ' of the phenomena of capitalist society as the first instance ’ nothing at.. Harder to bring movement into fixed ideas than into sensuous existence. ” 12. The dogma of rationality remains unimpaired and is compatible with every content posits heteronomy! World of commodities has become universal at this point classical philosophy had nothing but the very moment when situation..., eclectics and simple partisans of the proletariat can only be made fully in. A becoming when compared with the contrast in methodology was still very primitive established very on!, Gesammelle Aufsdtze zur Religionssoziologie II, pp to this phenomenon can be more demanding and demoralising than active., however, a problem of the Political master. ” [ 19 ] of rational mechanisation and must! Conceive of it this gives the ‘ ultimate ’ problems of human persist! Nature as a mechanical and naturalistic psychology and finally appears as a system of law corresponding to its in... Individual capacities and needs of the case, all the others and serve as paradigms them.

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